Each file (and directory) has associated access rights, which may be found by typing ls -l. Also, ls -lg gives additional information as to which group owns the file . Here is an example -rwxrw-r-- 1 axa1160 Anjay 2450 Nov12 03:23 mystuff

In the left-hand column is a 10 symbol string consisting of the symbols d, r, w, x, -, and, occasionally, s or S. If d is present, it will be at the left hand end of the string, and indicates a directory: otherwise - will be the starting symbol of the string.

The 9 remaining symbols indicate the permissions, or access rights, and are taken as three groups of 3.

The symbols r, w, etc., have slightly different meanings depending on whether they refer to a simple file or to a directory.